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Kiekis

Kokio kiekio mėsos reikia šešių asmenų pietums?

Kepsniui geriausia imti išpjovą, nugarinę, pasturgalio viršų ar vidurį. Jeigu su kaulu, vienam asmeniui imti po 400 g, jei be kaulų – 200 g mėsos. Kotletams – 600 g jautienos be kaulų.

Virti geriau pasturgalį, kad būtų daugiau minkštimo. Troškinti labiausiai tinka jautiena nuo pasturgalio viršaus ar nugarinės. Kiaulienai rūkyti ir kepti geriausiai tinka užpakalinis kumpis. Jautienos pjausniui imti apie 2,5 kg jautienos išpjovos.

Kokybė

Tik kokybiška mėsa lemia tikrąjį patiekalo skonį. Kaip ją atpažinti?

Gera mėsa neturi jokio kvapo, verdama nelabai susitraukia ir sumažėja, pastovėjusi nebūna slidi ar šlapia.

Riebalų joje turėtų būti ne per daug ir ne per mažai. Sušaldyti mėsą – vienintelis būdas išlaikyti ją ilgesnį laiką. Tik reikia saugoti, kad kartą atšilus, nebūtų šaldoma vėl, nes pakartotinai šaldyta mėsa netenka daug mitybinių medžiagų ir net būna kenksminga. Mėsa, kuri buvo kelis kartus atšilusi ir vėl šaldyta, būna tamsios nevienodos spalvos, o mėsa, šaldyta tik vieną kartą, yra šviesiai rusvai pilkos spalvos. Beje, riebesnė mėsa genda greičiau. 

Bendrieji patarimai

Jeigu virtą mėsą patiekiate kaip antrąjį patiekalą, ją reikia dėti į verdantį vandenį. Tuomet mėsa išliks sultinga ir skani.

Kad mėsa būtų skani, nereikia jos iš sultinio išimti anksčiau, nei ji bus pateikta. Priešingu atveju ji apdžiūva.

Mėsą virti reikia ilgiau negu kepti.

Kepsnį iš pradžių kepkite ant didelės ugnies, o paskui nukelkite ant mažesnės. Žlėgtainius, kotletus ir riestinius reikia dėti į keptuvę, į karštus riebalus, aprausvinti iš visų pusių ir toliau kepti ant mažos ugnies.

Kepant kepsnį reikia jį dažnai vartyti ir judinti, o užpylus padažą, saugoti, kad neprisviltų. Jei taip atsitiko, greitai išimkite, perdėkite į kitą indą, nuplaukite ir nuskutę svilėsius toliau kepkite. Padažą teks gaminti iš naujo.

Kepsnį reikia aptepti sviestu, įpilti kelis šaukštelius vandens ir pastatyti į karštą krosnį. Dažnai laistykite tuo pačiu padažu ir dažnai badykite šakutėmis. Jei pasirodo kraujo, dar reikia kepti.

Kepant kepsnį krosnelėje, reikia dėti į gerai įkaitusią, kad iš karto iškeptų viršus, tada kepsnys bus sultingas ir skanus. Leiskite paviršiui kiek parausti, o paskui dažnai laistykite tuo pačiu skysčiu, kuriame jis kepamas. Jei kepama ant viryklės, būtinai reikia kepti atvirame inde ir ant vienodos, ne per karštos ugnies. Dažnai vartykite nuo vieno šono ant kito, bet šakute durkite negiliai, kad be reikalo neištekėtų skysčio, nes tada kepsnys bus sausas ir nesultingas. Jei reikia kepsnį pašildyti, užvirinkite tiktai padažą ir į jį dėkite mėsą, bet su mėsa jau nevirkite, nes ji pasidaro kieta ir neskani.

Nepatartina iškart pjaustyti tik iškepto kepsnio. Reikia palikti 10–15 minučių, kad atauštų ir tik tuomet pjaustyti (būtinai skersai raumenų).

Norint sužinoti, ar mėsa išvirusi, reikia įsmeigti šakutę; jei šakutė lengvai praduria, vadinasi, mėsa jau išvirusi.

Troškinti mėsą visada reikia uždengtame prikaistuvyje ant krosnelės viršaus, o ne viduje. Troškinti reikia ant vidutinės ugnies, kad mėsa palengva troškintųsi ir sultinys per daug neišvirtų. Jeigu reikia troškinti mažus gabaliukus ir mažą kiekį mėsos, geriausia tai daryti ant garų, t. y. pastačius prikaistuvį į didesnį indą su verdančiu vandeniu.

Jei kumpis per sūrus, jį reikia mirkyti šaltame vandenyje visą parą ir dažnai keisti vandenį. Verdant sūrų vandenį dažnai pakeisti šviežiu. Keičiant vandenį įdėti plutelę juodos duonos – taip pašalinamas nemalonus kvapas ir iš mėsos ištraukiamas sūrumas.

Beje, apie druską. Jos reikia imti skaičiuojant kiekvienam 400 g po pusę arbatinio šaukštelio.

Specifiniai patarimai

Jautiena

Jeigu mėsa kieta, nugraibius putas pusvalandį pavirinkite ir 1,2 kg mėsos įpilkite du valgomuosius šaukštus degtinės bei toliau virkite. Mėsa suminkštės, kai išgaruos degtinės kvapas.

Veršiena

Veršiena skanesnė mirkyta piene. Galima prismaigstyti lašinukų.

Nepaprastai skanus veršienos kepsnys, iš vakaro pasūdytas, įtrintas druska, suvyniotas, užsiūtas į servetėlę ar audeklą, užkastas į žemę 2 metrus ir paliktas 12 valandų. Kitą dieną iškasus iškart kepkite (neplovę).

Kiauliena

Visi iš kiaulienos gaminami valgiai turi būti gerai virinami, nes kiaulienoje yra kenksmingų bacilų, kurios ilgiau verdant apie 70 laipsnių karštyje tampa nekenksmingos.

Perkant rūkytą kiaulieną, pvz., kumpį, reikia peiliu įdurti iki kaulo; jei ištraukus peilis švarus ir kvepia tiktai rūkyta mėsa, vadinasi, kumpis geras. Jei kumpis kietas, reikia gerai jį suvynioti į servetėlę ir užkasti į juodžemį 12 valandų.

Naminiai paukščiai

Perkant vištą reikia žiūrėti, kad kaklas ir kojos būtų storos. Senų vištų kojos būna plonos, tamsios ir kaklas plonas.

Kalakutą geriausia kepti įdėjus gabaliuką imbiero į vidų, kad panaikintų kalakuto kvapą.

Laukiniai paukščiai

Maži paukščiai, tokie kaip putpelės, kepami su galvelėmis, kurios užsukamos po kairiuoju sparnu. Laukiniai paukščiai nebūna riebūs, todėl didesnius reikėtų prismaigstyti lašinukų, o mažus apdėti riekelėmis lašinių, jas pririšti ir kepti pakaitintame svieste.

Ilgasnapiai paukščiai, tokie kaip perkūno oželiai ar strazdai, be druskos, dar įtrinami ir sugrūstomis kadagių uogomis. Juodos kurapkos skanesnės už baltas. Prie kurapkų patiekite bruknių.

Baltymai

Mėsą ypač vertiname dėl joje esančių baltymų. Kur jų daugiausia ir kur – mažiausia? Daugiausia baltymų yra kiaulienos kumpyje – 24,7 proc. (bet būkite atidūs, nes kiaulienos kumpis dar ir riebus), kiškienoje ir kurapkos mėsoje – 23,3 proc. (labai liesi produktai), kalakutienoje – 22,6 proc., triušienoje ir arklienoje – 21,5 procento.

Mažiausiai – kiaulės kojose ir galvoje (4 proc.), kiaulės lašiniuose (8,7 proc.), riebioje vištienoje (14 proc.).

Po pietų

Rūkyta mėsa virškinama 6 val., o virta viščiukų mėsa – 1–1,5 valandos.

Patarimus rinko Indrė Lukošaitienė.

„Didžiosios virėjos“ patarimai

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